A comprehensive analysis of randomized trials conducted since 1982 reveals that adopting vegetarian and vegan diets can significantly reduce cholesterol and fat levels in the bloodstream, leading to a decreased risk of heart and blood vessel diseases. The study, published in the European Heart Journal, highlights the potential power of plant-based diets to contribute to the reduction of arterial blockages, including the risk of stroke and heart attacks.
The researchers examined 30 randomized trials involving 2,372 participants, published between 1982 and 2022. These trials compared the effects of vegetarian or vegan diets to omnivorous diets on various cholesterol-related parameters, such as total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (often referred to as ‘bad’ cholesterol), triglycerides, and apolipoprotein B (apoB). ApoB is a protein that carries fat and cholesterol in the blood and serves as an indicator of the overall amount of harmful fats and cholesterol in the body. Unlike previous meta-analyses, this study considered factors like continent, age, body mass index, and health status, providing a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of plant-based diets on cholesterol levels.
The findings demonstrated that both vegan and vegetarian diets were associated with a 14% reduction in artery-clogging lipoproteins, as indicated by apoB. This reduction corresponds to approximately one-third of the effect achieved by cholesterol-lowering medications like statins, leading to a potential 7% decrease in the risk of cardiovascular disease over five years for those who maintained a plant-based diet. While statin treatment remains more effective in lowering fats and cholesterol levels, combining it with a plant-based diet may have a synergistic effect, offering even greater benefits.
Professor Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Chief Physician at the Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, who led the study along with medical student Ms. Caroline Amalie Koch and Dr. Emilie Westerlin Kjeldsen, also from the Rigshospitalet, emphasized the significant potential for reducing cardiovascular disease risks by adopting plant-based diets early in life. The research revealed consistent results across different continents, age groups, body mass index ranges, and various health conditions.
Notably, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide, with over 18 million deaths attributed to it each year. The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Agenda aims to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases like CVD by a third by 2030. Additionally, there is growing attention to the environmental impact of our food choices, with recent reviews suggesting that shifting high-income countries to plant-based diets could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by up to 49%.
While the study did not directly compare fish-based diets to omnivorous diets due to a lack of relevant studies, the Mediterranean diet, rich in plant-based foods and fish, has been recognized for its favorable health effects.
The research, supported by the Lundbeck Foundation, the Danish Heart Foundation, and the Leducq Foundation, serves as the largest systematic review on the topic to date and includes essential biomarkers like apoB. However, the study’s limitations, such as the relatively small size and duration of individual trials and the inability to blind participants to their assigned diets, call for more extensive and longer-term studies involving additional biomarkers to further validate the findings.
In conclusion, adopting plant-based diets not only benefits individual health by reducing cholesterol and fat levels but also holds promise in addressing climate concerns through lower greenhouse gas emissions. It is suggested that embracing a varied, plant-rich diet, combined with conscious consumption, can have far-reaching positive effects on both human well-being and the environment.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Plant-based diets
What are the benefits of adopting a plant-based diet?
Adopting a plant-based diet offers several benefits, including reduced cholesterol and fat levels in the bloodstream, leading to a decreased risk of heart and blood vessel diseases. Studies have shown that plant-based diets can achieve a third of the cholesterol-lowering effect of statins, potentially resulting in a 7% reduction in cardiovascular disease risk over five years.
How do plant-based diets impact cardiovascular health?
Plant-based diets have been found to significantly reduce artery-clogging lipoproteins, as indicated by apolipoprotein B (apoB), which plays a crucial role in carrying fats and cholesterol in the blood. This reduction in harmful lipoproteins can lead to a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and heart attacks.
Can plant-based diets benefit people of all ages and health conditions?
Yes, research indicates that plant-based diets provide health benefits for people of different ages, body mass index ranges, and health statuses. Whether individuals are of normal weight or obese, adopting a plant-based diet can lead to reduced cholesterol and fat levels, contributing to better overall cardiovascular health.
How does a plant-based diet impact the environment?
Plant-based diets have a positive impact on the environment as they contribute to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Shifting towards plant-rich diets in high-income countries could lead to decreased net emissions of greenhouse gases by up to 49%, helping address environmental concerns.
Is it necessary to completely omit meat, poultry, and fish to follow a plant-based diet?
While it is not essential to entirely omit meat, poultry, and fish from the diet, reducing consumption of these animal-based foods is a reasonable option for those who prefer to follow a plant-based dietary pattern. Diets like the Mediterranean diet, which include both plant-based foods and fish, have also been associated with favorable health effects.
What are the limitations of the study on plant-based diets?
The study, while comprehensive, has some limitations. Individual randomized controlled trials were relatively small, and the duration of the diets was often less than a year in many studies. Additionally, participants were not blinded to their assigned diets, which may have influenced other behaviors impacting cholesterol and fat levels.
What is the potential impact of plant-based diets on cardiovascular disease?
With over 18 million deaths attributed to cardiovascular disease each year worldwide, adopting plant-based diets has the potential to contribute significantly to reducing the burden of these diseases. By aiming to decrease premature deaths from non-communicable diseases like CVD by a third by 2030, plant-based diets can play a crucial role in promoting heart health and overall well-being.
More about Plant-based diets
“Vegetarian or vegan diets and blood lipids: a meta-analysis of randomized trials” (European Heart Journal)
“The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Agenda”
“Impact of plant-based diets on greenhouse gas emissions”
“The Mediterranean diet and its health benefits”
“Danish Heart Foundation”